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Bio-Medical Treatments and Resources

What is Biomedical Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders?

Bio-Medical Autism TreatmentsBiomedical treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDS) is essentially the restoring of function to the bodily systems which, because they are out of balance, result in the behaviors that define the spectrum diagnoses. The biomedical approach to treating ASDS begins with a thorough history taking and evaluation. The evaluation process will typically require extensive health and social history taking, metabolic, immune and sensory testing. As appropriate and determined by the patient’s history and presentation, treatment can include a number of therapies which include, but are not limited to metabolic, nutritional, immune and detoxification treatment for patients who do not detoxify adequately without assistance.

Based upon the current state of research it is not entirely clear why these patients struggle with gastrointestinal, immune, hormonal, detoxification and sensory issues. However, it is apparent from decades of work and treatment that the problem results from three major causes:

  1. Food allergies and malabsorption of food and nutrients;
  2. An inflammatory process of the gut lining which creates discomfort and digestive disruption/IBS;
  3. An error in the liver methylation detoxification pathway, which results in inadequate clearing of toxins that then contribute to neurotoxicity.

These conditions can exist individually or more likely operate as overlapping agents of pain, disease and behavioral issues. Behavioral issues can result from the presence of neurotoxins which are not properly filtered by the liver, as well as pain, discomfort and malnutrition secondary to a digestive process which is not healthy and functional.

Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Associated Co-Morbidities:

Autism is a clinical and psychiatric diagnosis. It is a biologically based disorder of brain development. However, not all children with autism experience the same symptoms or severity of effect. Accordingly, medical professionals now use the phrase “autism spectrum disorder” (ASD) to embrace patients with autism, Asperger’s Syndrome, ADD, ADHD and non-specific pervasive development disorder. Because these patients exhibit symptoms which manifest in a constellation of medical and behavioral challenges, professionals chose to view the condition as a spectrum.

Research has determined that autism/ASD likely has one or more genetic components in a small percentage of cases. As the field of epigenetics grows, more information will become available to assist in the understanding of the genetic expression of the associated conditions. However, and more importantly, recent research has confirmed the distinct and inarguable connection between the autism spectrum of health effects with pre- and post natal neurotoxicity exposure. Children today are at risk of exposure to 3000 synthetic chemicals produced in quantities of more than one million pounds per year. Recently the United States has launched The National Children’s Study which will examine 100,000 children from birth to age 21 and will include over 700 children with autism. The central inquiry of the study will be to attempt to link children’s pre-natal and post-natal environmental exposures with the subsequent appearance of disease and dysfunction. Were the issue of pre-natal and childhood exposure to neurotoxic illness not a significant health issue, this study and the enormous effort involved, would be unnecessary.

According to the medical publication Pediatrics, data published in the autumn of 2009 indicates that in ASD patients, gastrointestinal disorders and associated symptoms are commonly reported. In such patients, gastrointestinal disorders can present as nongastrointestinal problems. Disturbed sleep and nighttime awakening were reported in 52 percent of studied ASD patients who had gastrointestinal symptoms, as opposed to 7 percent of age-matched healthy siblings. Children with ADS who had reflux exhibited unexplained waking irritability more frequently (43 percent) than those who did not (13 percent).

The study concluded that ASD behaviors, including problem behavior may be markers of abdominal pain or discomfort. Many children with ASD are functionally and intellectually impaired and therefore cannot effectively communicate when they are uncomfortable or in pain. In May of 2008, a multidisciplinary team met in Boston Massachusetts and was organized to study the evaluation and management of gastrointestinal disorders for patients with ASD. Experts included the fields of child psychiatry, epidemiology, genetics, immunology, nursing, pediatric allergy, pediatric gastroenterology, pediatric pain, pediatric neurology, pediatric nutrition and psychology. Based upon the work completed by this group of experts, it was concluded that the prevalence of gastrointestinal abnormalities in patients with ASD’s is incompletely understood at this time and further study is distinctly warranted. The group also concluded that the evidence for abnormal gastrointestinal permeability in ASD patients should be developed by further study to determine if this condition plays a role in the neuropsychiatric manifestations of ASD’s.

Most significantly, the study concluded that patients with ASD’s and gastrointestinal symptoms may be at higher risk for problem behaviors than those with ASD’s who do not have gastrointestinal symptoms. Problem behaviors include vocal and motor behaviors, self-injury and aggressions, sleep disturbance or irritability and all of these behaviors may be behavioral manifestations of abdominal pain or discomfort. It was determined that sudden and unexplained behavioral change can be the hallmark of underlying pain or discomfort. A healthy child who is free from pain and illness can undertake daily tasks and human interrelationships with far less aversion than one who struggles with gastrointestinal illness and associated nutritional inadequacy. Behavioral treatments and medications should not be employed as a substitute for legitimate treatment of gastrointestinal illness and malnutrition.

For example, the study states that aggressive and self-injurious behavior in patients with ASD’s may be the primary clinical manifestations of Gastroesophageal reflux (GERD). Imagine being a child stricken with the symptoms of reflux but being unable to communicate that this condition routinely causes severe pain.

Journal References that Support Biomedical Therapies for Autism

Peer Review Research and Support

Many of these treatments are peer supported and reviewed. Click the links below for a list of these studies by category.

Autism and the Gastrointestinal System Research

Afzal N, et al. Constipation with acquired megarectum in children with autism. Pediatrics. 2003 Oct;112(4):939-42.

Arvilommi H, Isolauri E.Kalliomäki M, Poussa T, Salminen S. Probiotics and prevention of atopic disease: 4-year follow-up of a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2003 361(9372):1869-71.

Ashwood P et al.  Intestinal lymphocyte populations in children with regressive autism: evidence for extensive mucosal immunopathology. J Clin Immunol. 2003 Nov;23(6):504-17.

Ashwood P, Wakefield AJ. Immune activation of peripheral blood and mucosal CD3+ lymphocyte cytokine profiles in children with autism and gastrointestinal symptoms. J Neuroimmunol. 2006 Apr;173(1-2):126-34.

Balzola F, Barbon V, Repici A, Rizzetto M. Panenteric IBD-like disease in a patient with regressive autism shown for the first time by the wireless capsule enteroscopy: another piece in the jigsaw of this gut-brain syndrome? Am J Gastro. 2005; 979-981.

Balzola F, et al. Autistic enterocolitis: confirmation of a new inflammatory bowel disease in an Italian cohort of patients. Gastroenterology. 2005;128:Suppl.2;A-303.

Balzola F, et al. Autistic Enterocolitis in childhood: the early evidence of the later Crohn’s disease in autistic adulthood? Gastroenterology April 2007 Vol 132, N. 4, suppl 2 W 1100 A 660

Balzola F, et al.  Beneficial behavioural effects of IBD therapy and gluten/casein-free diet in an Italian cohort of patients with autistic enterocolitis followed over one year. Gastroenterology, April 2006 Vol 130 Number 4 suppl. 2 S1364 A-21.

Biller JA, Katz AJ, Flores AF, Buie TM, Gorbach SL. Treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis with Lactobacillus GG. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1995 Aug;21(2):224-6.

Billoo AG, Memon MA, Khaskheli SA, et al.  Role of probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii in management and prevention of diarrhea.  World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:4557-4560.

Black C, Kaye JA, Jick H. Relation of childhood gastrointestinal disorders to autism: nested case-control study using data from the UK General Practice Research Database. BMJ. 2002 Aug 24;325(7361):419-21.

Binstock T. Intra-monocyte pathogens delineate autism subgroups. Med Hypotheses. 2001 Apr;56(4):523-31.

Binstock T. Anterior insular cortex: linking intestinal pathology and brain function in autism-spectrum subgroups. Med Hypotheses 2001 57(6):714-7.

Borruel N, et al. Increased mucosal tumour necrosis factor alpha production in Crohn’s disease can be downregulated ex vivo by probiotic bacteria. Gut. 2002 Nov;51(5):659-64.

Bousvaros A,et al; and the Members of the Challenges in Pediatric IBD Study Groups. Challenges in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2006 Sep;12(9):885-913.

Buchman AL, et al. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for severe ulcerative colitis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2001Oct;33(4):337-9.

Buts JP, De Keyser N. Effects of Saccharomyces boulardii on intestinal mucosa. Dig Dis Sci. 2006 Aug;51(8):1485-92.

Cade R, et al. Autism and schizophrenia: intestinal disorders. Nutritional Neuroscience 3: 57-72, 2000.

Cade JR, et al. Autism and schizophrenia linked to malfunctioning enzyme for milk protein digestion. Autism, Mar 1999.

Czerucka D, et al. Experimental effects of Saccharomyces boulardii on diarrheal pathogens. Microbes Infect, 2002. 4(7): p. 733-9.

DeFelice ML, et al. Intestinal cytokines in children with pervasive developmental disorders. Am J Gastroenterol 98(8): 1777-82: 2003.

del Giudice MM, Brunese FP. Probiotics, prebiotics, and allergy in children: what’s new in the last year? J Clin Gastroenterol. 2008 Sep;42 Suppl 3 Pt 2:S205-8.

D’Eufemia P, et al. Abnormal intestinal permeability in children with autism. Acta Paediatr. 1996 Sep;85(9):1076-9.

Fedorak RN, Madsen KL. Probiotics and the management of inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2004 May;10(3):286.

Forsberg G, et al. Presence of bacteria and innate immunity of intestinal epithelium in childhood celiac disease. Am J Gastroenterol.  2004 May;99(5):894-904.

Furlano RI, et al. Colonic CD8 and gamma delta T-cell infiltration with epithelial damage in children with autism. J Pediatr. 2001 Mar;138(3):366-72.

Ghosh S, et al. Probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease: is it all gut flora modulation? Gut. 2004 May;53(5):620-2.

Gonzalez L, Lopez K, Navarro D, Negron L, Flores L, Rodriguez R, Martinez M, Sabra A. Endoscopic and Histological Characteristics of the digestive mucosa in autistic children with gastrointestinal symptoms. Arch Venez Pueric Pediatr 69;1:19-25

Gottschall, Elaine G. Breaking the Vicious Cycle: Intestinal Health Through Diet. Ontario: Kirkton Press. 1994.

Hadjivassiliou M et al.  Does cryptic gluten sensitivity play a part in neurological illness?  Lancet. 1996 Feb 10;347(8998):369-71.

Hart AL, et al. Modulation of human dendritic cell phenotype and function by probiotic bacteria. Gut. 2004 Nov;53(11):1602-9.

Haskey N, Dahl WJ. Synbiotic therapy: a promising new adjunctive therapy for ulcerative colitis. Nutr Rev. 2006 Mar;64(3):132-8.

Hassall E. Decisions in diagnosing and managing chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease in children. J Pediatr. 2005 Mar;146(3 Suppl):S3-12.

Homan M, Baldassano RN, Mamula P. Managing complicated Crohn’s disease in children and adolescents. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005 Dec;2(12):572-9.

Horvath K et al.  Gastrointestinal abnormalities in children with autistic disorder. J Pediatr. 1999 Nov;135(5):559-63.

Horvath K, Perman JA. Autism and gastrointestinal symptoms. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2002 Jun;4(3):251-8.

Horvath K, Perman JA. Autistic disorder and gastrointestinal disease. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2002 Oct;14(5):583-7.

Iacono G et al.  Intolerance of cow’s milk and chronic constipation in children.  N Engl J Med. 1998 Oct 15;339(16):1100-4.

Işeri SO, Sener G, Sağlam B, Gedik N, Ercan F, Yeğen BC. Oxytocin ameliorates oxidative colonic inflammation by a neutrophil-dependent mechanism. Peptides. 2005 Mar;26(3):483-91.

Kawashima H et al. Detection and sequencing of measles virus from peripheral mononuclear cells from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and autism. Dig Dis Sci. 2000 Apr;45(4):723-9.

Koch TR, et al. Induction of enlarged intestinal lymphoid aggregates during acute glutathione depletion in a murine model. Dig Dis Sci 2000. 45(11): 2115-21.

Kruis W. Antibiotics and probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther.  2004 Oct;20 Suppl 4:75-8.

Kuddo T, Nelson KB. How common are gastrointestinal disorders in children with autism. Curr Opin Pediatr 2003: 15(3); 339-343.

Kushak R, Winter H, Farber N, Buie T. Gastrointestinal symptoms and intestinal disaccharidase activities in children with autism. Abstract of presentation to the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Annual Meeting, October 20-22, 2005, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Levy S, et al. Children with autistic spectrum disorders. I: Comparison of placebo and single dose of human synthetic secretin. Arch. Dis. Child. 2003;88;731-736.

Lewis JD, et al. An open-label trial of the PPAR-gamma ligand rosiglitazone for active ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001 Dec;96(12):3323-8.

Liu Z, Li N, Neu J. Tight junctions, leaky intestines, and pediatric diseases. Acta Paediatr. 2005 Apr;94(4):386-93.

Macdonald A. Omega-3 fatty acids as adjunctive therapy in Crohn’s disease. Gastroenterol Nurs. 2006 Jul-Aug;29(4):295-301.

Melmed RD, Schneider CK, Fabes RA. Metabolic markers and gastrointestinal symptoms in children with autism and related disorders. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2000:31(suppl 2)S31-32.

Ménard S, Candalh C, Bambou JC, Terpend K, Cerf-Bensussan N, Heyman M. Lactic acid bacteria secrete metabolites retaining anti-inflammatory properties after intestinal transport. Gut. 2004 Jun;53(6):821-8.

Parracho HM, Bingham MO, Gibson GR, McCartney AL. Differences between the gut microflora of children with autistic spectrum disorders and that of healthy children. J Med Microbiol. 2005 Oct;54(Pt 10):987-91.

Qin HL, Shen TY, Gao ZG, Fan XB, Hang XM, Jiang YQ, Zhang HZ. Effect of lactobacillus on the gut microflora and barrier function of rats with abdominal infection. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 May 7;11(17):2591-6.

Quigley EM, Hurley D. Autism and the gastrointestinal tract. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000 Sep;95(9):2154-6.
Reichelt KL, Knivsberg AM. Can the pathophysiology of autism be explained by the nature of the discovered urine peptides? Nutr Neurosci.  2003 Feb;6(1):19-28.

Reichelt KL, et al. Probable Etiology and Possible Treatment of Childhood Autism. Brain Dysfuntion 1991; 4: 308-319.

Rimland, B. Secretin treatment for autism. N Engl J Med 2000. 342(16): 1216-7; author reply 1218.

Romano C, et al. Usefulness of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in addition to mesalazine in maintaining remission in pediatric Crohn’s disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Dec 7;11(45):7118-21.

Salminen S, Isolauri E, Salminen E. Clinical uses of probiotics for stabilizing the gut mucosal barrier: successful strains and future challenges. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 1996 Oct;70(2-4):347-58.

Sandler RH, et al. Short-term benefit from oral vancomycin treatment of regressive-onset autism. J Child Neurol. 2000 Jul;15(7):429.

Schneider CK, Melmed RD, Barstow LE, Enriquez FJ, Ranger-Moore J, Ostrem JA. Oral Human Immunoglobulin for Children with Autism and Gastrointestinal Dysfunction: A Prospective, Open-Label Study. J Autism Dev Disord. 2006 Jul 15.

Sido B, Hack V, Hochlehnert A, Lipps H, Herfarth C, Droge W. Impairment of intestinal glutathione synthesis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gut. 1998 Apr;42(4):485-92.

Sienkiewicz-Szapka E, et al. Transport of bovine milk derived opioid peptides across a Caco-2 monolayer, Int Dairy J. 2008.

Song Y, Liu C, Finegold SM. Real-time PCR quantitation of clostridia in feces of autistic children. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004 Nov;70(11):6459-65.

Sougioultzis S, et al. Saccharomyces boulardii produces a soluble anti-inflammatory factor that inhibits NF-kappaB-mediated IL-8 gene expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Apr 28;343(1):69-76.

Sturniolo, G.C., et al. Zinc supplementation tightens “leaky gut” in Crohn’s disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2001. 7(2): p. 94-8.

Surawicz CM. Probiotics, antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and Clostridium difficile diarrhoea in humans. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2003 Oct;17(5):775-83.

Taylor B, Miller E, Lingam R, Andrews N, Simmons A, Stowe J. Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and bowel problems or developmental regression in children with autism: population study. BMJ. 2002 Feb 16;324(7334):393-6.

Torrente F, Anthony A. Focal-enhanced gastritis in regressive autism with features distinct from Crohn’s disease and helicobacter Pylori gastritis. Am J Gastroenterol 2004 Apr;99(4):598-605.

Torrente F et al.  Small intestinal enteropathy with epithelial IgG and complement deposition in children with regressive autism. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7(4):375-82, 334.

Uhlmann V et al.  Potential viral pathogenic mechanism for new variant inflammatory bowel disease. Mol Pathol. 2002 Apr;55(2):84-90.

Valicenti-McDermott M, et al. Frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in children with autistic spectrum disorders and association with family history of autoimmune disease. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2006 Apr;27(2 Suppl):S128-36.

Valicenti-McDermott MD, McVicar K, Cohen HJ, Wershil BK, Shinnar S. Gastrointestinal symptoms in children with an autism spectrum disorder and language regression. Pediatr Neurol. 2008 Dec;39(6):392-8.

Wakefield AJ, Ashwood P, Limb K, Anthony A. The significance of ileo-colonic lymphoid nodular hyperplasia in children with autistic spectrum disorder. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005 Aug;17(8):827-36.

Wakefield AJ et al. Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children. Lancet. 1998 28;351(9103):637-41.

Wakefield AJ. Enterocolitis, autism and measles virus. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7 Suppl 2:S44-6.

Wakefield AJ. The gut-brain axis in childhood developmental disorders. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2002 May-Jun;34 Suppl 1:S14-7.

Wakefield AJ et al. Review article: the concept of entero-colonic encephalopathy, autism and opioid receptor ligands. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002 16(4):663-74.

Wakefield AJ et al. Enterocolitis in children with developmental disorders. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000 Sep;95(9):2285-95.

Wakefield AJ, et al. Autism, viral infection and measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Isr Med Assoc J. 1999 Nov;1(3):183-7.

Wakefield AJ.  MMR vaccination and autism. Lancet. 1999 Sep 11;354(9182):949-50.

Welch MG, Welch-Horan TB, Anwar M, Anwar N, Ludwig RJ, Ruggiero DA. Brain effects of chronic IBD in areas abnormal in autism and treatment by single neuropeptides secretin and oxytocin. J Mol Neurosci 2005; 25(3):259-74.

White JF. Intestinal pathophysiology in autism. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2003 Jun;228(6):639-49.

Whiteley P, Shattock P. Biochemical aspects in autism spectrum disorders: updating the opioid-excess theory and presenting new opportunities for biomedical intervention. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2002 Apr;6(2):175-83.

Biomedical Treatment

Goin-Kochel RP, Mackintosh VH, Myers, BJ. Parental reports on the efficacy of treatments and therapies of their children with autism spectrum disorders. Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2009, doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2008.11.001.

O’Hara NH, Szakacs GM. The recovery of a child with autism spectrum disorder through biomedical interventions. Altern Ther Health Med. 2008 Nov-Dec;14(6):42-4.

Immune System Dysfunction and Treatment Research

Ashwood P, Kwong C, Hansen R, Hertz-Picciotto I, Croen L, Krakowiak P, Walker W, Pessah IN, Van de Water J. Brief report: plasma leptin levels are elevated in autism: association with early onset phenotype? J Autism Dev Disord. 2008 Jan;38(1):169-75.

Ashwood P, et al. Spontaneous mucosal lymphocyte cytokine profiles in children with autism and gastrointestinal symptoms: mucosal immune activation and reduced counter regulatory interleukin-10. J Clin Immunol. 2004 Nov;24(6):664-73.

Ashwood P, Van de Water J. Is autism an autoimmune disease? Autoimmun Rev. 2004 Nov;3(7-8):557-62.

Ashwood P, et al. The immune response in autism: a new frontier for autism research. J Leuk Biol. 2006 Jul:80;1-15.

Bayary J, et al. Intravenous immunoglobulin in autoimmune disorders: an insight into the immunoregulatory mechanisms. Int Immunopharmacol. 2006 Apr;6(4):528-34.

Boris M, et al. Improvement in children treated with intravenous gamma globulin. J Nutr Environmental Med. Dec 2006; 15(4):1-8.

Boris M, et al. Effect of Pioglitazone treatment on behavioral symptoms in autistic children. J Neuroinflammation. 2007 Jan 5;4:3.

Bradstreet JJ, Smith S, Granpeesheh D, El-Dahr JM, Rossignol D. Spironolactone Might be a Desirable Immunologic and Hormonal Intervention in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Med Hypotheses. 2006 Dec 4.

Brandtzaeg P. Current Understanding of Gastrointestinal Immunoregulation and Its Relation to Food Allergy. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2002;964:14-45.

Braunschweig D, et al. Autism: Maternally derived antibodies specific for fetal brain proteins. Neurotoxicology. 2007 Nov 6.

Bray TM, Taylor CG.  Enhancement of tissue glutathione for antioxidant and immune functions in malnutrition. Biochem Pharmacol.  1994 Jun 15;47(12):2113-23.

Cabanlit M, Wills S, Goines P, Ashwood P, Van de Water J. Brain-specific autoantibodies in the plasma of subjects with autistic spectrum disorder. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Jun;1107:92-103.

Cave SF. The history of vaccinations in the light of the autism epidemic. Altern Ther Health Med. 2008 Nov-Dec;14(6):54-7.

Chinetti G, Fruchart JC, Staels B. Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPAR): nuclear receptors at the crossroads between lipid metabolism and inflammation. Inflamm Res 2000;49:497-505.

Cohly HH, Panja A. Immunological findings in autism. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2005;71:317-41.

Chmelik, E., N. Awadallah, et al. (2004). Varied presentation of PANDAS: a case series. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 43(4): 379-82.

Connolly AM, Chez MG, Pestronk A, Arnold ST, Mehta S, Deuel RK. Serum autoantibodies to brain in Landau-Kleffner variant, autism, and other neurologic disorders. J Pediatr. 1999 May;134(5):607-13.

Croen LA, Grether JK, Yoshida CK, Odouli R, Van de Water J. Maternal autoimmune diseases, asthma and allergies, and childhood autism spectrum disorders: a case-control study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005 Feb;159(2):151-7.

Croonenberghs J, Wauters A, Devreese K, Verkerk R, Scharpe S, Bosmans E, Egyed B, Deboutte D, Maes M. Increased serum albumin, gamma globulin, immunoglobulin IgG, and IgG2 and IgG4 in autism. Psychol Med. 2002 Nov;32(8):1457-63.

Croonenberghs J, et al. Activation of the inflammatory response system in autism. Neuropsychobiology 2002, 45(1):1-6.

Cross ML. Immune-signalling by orally-delivered probiotic bacteria: effects on common mucosal immunoresponses and protection at distal mucosal sites. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol.  2004 May-Aug;17(2):127-34.

Dalton P, et al. Maternal neuronal antibodies associated with autism and a language disorder. Ann Neurol. 2003 Apr;53(4):533-7.
DelGiudice-Asch G, Simon L, Schmeidler J, Cunningham-Rundles C, Hollander E. Brief report: A pilot open clinical trial of intravenous immunoglobulin in childhood autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 1999:29(2):157-60..

Denney DR, et al. Lymphocyte subsets and interleukin-2 receptors in autistic children. J Autism Dev Disord. 1996 Feb;26(1):87-97.

Dietert RR, Dietert JM. Potential for early-life immune insult including developmental immunotoxicity in autism and autism spectrum disorders: focus on critical windows of immune vulnerability.J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2008 Oct;11(8):660-80.

Drakes M, Blanchard T, Czinn S. Bacterial probiotic modulation of dendritic cells. Infect Immun. 2004 Jun;72(6):3299-309.

Droge W, Breitkreutz R. Glutathione and immune function. Proc Nutr Soc.  2000 Nov;59(4):595-600.
Elchaar GM, Maisch NM, Augusto LM, Wehring HJ. Efficacy and safety of naltrexone use in pediatric patients with autistic disorder. Ann Pharmacother. 2006 Jun;40(6):1086-95.

Engstrom HA, Ohlson S, Stubbs EG, Maciulis A, Caldwell V, Odell JD, Torres A.R. Decreased Expression of CD95 (FAS/APO-1) on CD4+ T-lymphocytes from Participants with Autism. J Dev Phys Disabil. 2003 Jun 15;2:155-163(9).

Ferrante P, Saresella M, Guerini FR, Marzorati M, Musetti MC, Cazzullo AG. Significant association of HLA A2-DR11 with CD4 naive decrease in autistic children. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Oct;57(8):372-4.

Feinstein DL. Therapeutic potential of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists for neurological disease. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2003;5(1):67-73.

Fudenberg HH. Dialysable lymphocyte extract (DLyE) in infantile onset autism: a pilot study. Biotherapy. 1996;9(1-3):143-7.

Furlano RI, et al. Autism and the immune system. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1997 Mar;38(3):337-49.Griem P., et al.; Allergic and autoimmune reactions to xenobiotics: how do they arise? Immunology Today 19: 133-141, 1998.

Gao HM, Hong JS. Why neurodegenerative diseases are progressive: uncontrolled inflammation drives disease progression. Trends Immunol. 2008 Aug;29(8):357-65.

Geier DA, Geier MR. A Clinical and Laboratory Evaluation of Methionine Cycle-Transsulfuration and Androgen Pathway Markers in Children with Autistic Disorders. Horm Res. 2006 Jul 5;66(4):182-188.

Geier DA, Mumper E, Gladfelter B, Coleman L, Geier MR. Neurodevelopmental disorders, maternal Rh-negativity, and Rho(D) immune globulins: a multi-center assessment. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2008 Apr;29(2):272-80.

Griem P, et al. Allergic and autoimmune reactions to xenobiotics: how do they arise? Immunology Today 19: 133-141, 1998.

Gupta S. Immunological treatments for autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2000 Oct;30(5):475-9.

Gupta S, Aggarwal S, Heads C. Dysregulated immune system in children with autism: beneficial effects of intravenous immune globulin on autistic characteristics. J Autism Dev Disord. 1996 Aug;26(4):439-52.

Gupta S, et al. Th1- and Th2-like cytokines in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in autism. J Neuroimmunol. 1998 May 1;85(1):106-9.

Hamilton, RG, et al. In vitro assays for the diagnosis of IgE-mediated disorders. J Allergy Clin Immunol 114(2): 213-25.

Hertz-Picciotto I, Park HY, Dostal M, Kocan A, Trnovec T, Sram R. Prenatal exposures to persistent and non-persistent organic compounds and effects on immune system development. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2008 Feb;102(2):146-54.

Jyonouchi H, et al. Evaluation of an association between gastrointestinal symptoms and cytokine production against common dietary proteins in children with autism spectrum disorders. J Pediatr. 2005 May;146(5): 605-10.

Jyonouchi H, Geng L, Cushing-Ruby A, Quraishi H. Impact of innate immunity in a subset of children with autism spectrum disorders: a case control study. J Neuroinflammation. 2008 Nov 21;5(1):52.

Jyonouchi H, Sun S, Le H. Proinflammatory and regulatory cytokine production associated with innate and adaptive immune re-sponses in children with autism spectrum disorders and developmental regression. J Neuroimmunol. 2001 Nov 1;120(1-2):170-9.

Jyonouchi H, Sun S, Itokazu N. Innate immunity associated with inflammatory responses and cytokine production against common dietary proteins in patients with autism spectrum disorder. Neuropsychobiology. 2002;46(2):76-84.

Jyonouchi H, Geng L, Ruby A, Zimmerman-Bier B. Dysregulated innate immune responses in young children with autism spectrum disorders: their relationship to gastrointestinal symptoms and dietary intervention. Neuropsychobiology. 2005;51(2):77-85.

Kelly GS. Bovine colostrums: a review of clinical uses. Altern Med Rev. 2003 Nov;8(4):378-94.

Kidd PM. Autism, an extreme challenge to integrative medicine. Part 2: medical management. Altern Med Rev. 2002 Dec;7(6):472-.

Kirjavainen PV, et al. New aspects of probiotics–a novel approach in the management of food allergy. Allergy. 1999 Sep;54(9):909.

Knickmeyer R, Baron-Cohen S, Raggatt P, Taylor K. Foetal testosterone, social relationships, and restricted interests in children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2005 Feb;46(2):198-210.

Konstantareas MM, Homatidis S. Ear infections in autistic and normal children. J Autism Dev Disord. 1987 Dec;17(4):585-94.

Koski CL, Patterson JV. Intravenous immunoglobulin use for neurologic diseases. J Infus Nurs. 2006 May-Jun;29(3 Suppl):S21-8.

Krause I, et al. Brief report: immune factors in autism: a critical review. J Autism Dev Disord. 2002 Aug;32(4):337-45.

Li X, et al. Elevated immune response in the brain of autistic patients. J Neuroimmunol. 2009 Jan 19.

Lipkin WI, Hornig M. Microbiology and immunology of autism spectrum disorders. Novartis Found Symp. 2003;251:129-43; discussion 144-8, 281-97.

Lucarelli S et al. Food allergy and infantile autism. Panminerva Med.  1995 Sep;37(3):137-41.

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Nutritional Deficiencies, Supplements and Diets Research

Adams JB, Holloway C. Pilot study of a moderate dose multivitamin/mineral supplement for children with autistic spectrum disorder. J Altern Complement Med. 2004 Dec;10(6):1033-9.

Adams JB, George F, Audhya T. Abnormally high plasma levels of vitamin B6 in children with autism not taking supplements compared to controls not taking supplements. J Altern Complement Med. 2006 Jan-Feb;12(1):59-63.

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Bu B, Ashwood P, Harvey D, King IB, Water JV, Jin LW. Fatty acid compositions of red blood cell phospholipids in children with autism. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2006 Apr;74(4):215-21.

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Christison GW, Ivany K. Elimination diets in autism spectrum disorders: any wheat amidst the chaff? J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2006 Apr;27(2 Suppl):S162-71.

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Elder JH. The gluten-free, casein-free diet in autism: an overview with clinical implications.  Nutr Clin Pract. 2008 Dec-2009 Jan;23(6):583-8.

El Idrissi A et al.  Prevention of epileptic seizures by taurine. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003;526:515-25.

Erdeve O et al.  The probiotic effect of Saccharomyces boulardii in a pediatric age group. J Trop Pediatr.  2004 Aug;50(4):234-6.

Fernstrom JD. Can nutrient supplements modify brain function? Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jun;71(6 Suppl):1669S-75S.

Finegold SM et al. Gastrointestinal microflora studies in late-onset autism. Clin Infect Dis  2002 35 (Suppl 1):S6-S16.

Giannotti F, Cortesi F, Cerquiglini A, Bernabei P. An open-label study of controlled-release melatonin in treatment of sleep disorders in children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2006 Aug;36(6):741-52.

Gill HS, Rutherfurd KJ, Prasad J, Gopal PK. Enhancement of natural and acquired immunity by Lactobacillus rhamnosus (HN001), Lactobacillus acidophilus (HN017) and Bifidobacterium lactis (HN019). Br J Nutr. 2000 Feb;83(2):167-76.

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Ishizaki A, Sugama M, Takeuchi N. Usefulness of melatonin for developmental sleep and emotional/behavior disorders—studies of melatonin trial on 50 patients with developmental disorders. No To Hattatsu. 1999 Sep;31(5):428-37.

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Jory J, McGinnis WR. Red-Cell Trace Minerals in Children with Autism. Am J Biochem Biotechnol. 4(2): 101-104, 2008.

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Autism and Detoxification Research

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Aremu DA, Madejczyk MS, Ballatori N. N-acetylcysteine as a potential antidote and biomonitoring agent of methylmercury exposure. Environ Health Perspect. 2008 Jan;116(1):26-31.

Aschner M, Syversen T, Souza DO, Rocha JB. Metallothioneins: mercury species-specific induction and their potential role in attenuating neurotoxicity. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2006 Oct;231(9):1468-73.

Aw TY, Wierzbicka G, Jones DP. Oral glutathione increases tissue glutathione in vivo. Chem Biol Interact. 1991;80(1):89-97.

Aw TY. Intestinal glutathione: determinant of mucosal peroxide transport, metabolism, and oxidative susceptibility. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2005 May 1;204(3):320-8.

Bello SC. Autism and environmental influences: review and commentary. Rev Environ Health 2007: 22(2): 139-56.

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Burbacher TM, Shen DD, Liberato N, Grant KS, Cernichiari E, Clarkson T. Comparison of blood and brain mercury levels in infant monkeys exposed to methylmercury or vaccines containing thimerosal. Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Aug;113(8):1015-21.

Desoto MC, Hitlan RT. Blood Levels of Mercury Are Related to Diagnosis of Autism: A Reanalysis of an Important Data Set. J Child Neurol. 2007 Nov;22(11):1308-1311.

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Goth SR, Chu RA, Gregg JP, Cherednichenko G, Pessah IN. Uncoupling of ATP-mediated calcium signaling and dysregulated interleukin-6 secretion in dendritic cells by nanomolar thimerosal. Environ Health Perspect 2006; 114(7):1083-91.

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Havarinasab S, Hultman P. Organic mercury compounds and autoimmunity. Autoimmunity Rev 2005;4:270-275.

Havarinasab S, Haggqvist B, Bjorn E, Pollard KM, Hultman P. Immunosuppressive and autoimmune effects of thimerosal in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2005 Apr 15;204(2):109-21.

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Ip P, Wong V, Ho M, Lee J, Wong W. Mercury exposure in children with autistic spectrum disorder: case-control study. J Child Neurol. 2004 Jun;19(6):431-4.

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Lonsdale D, Shamberger RJ, Audhya T. Treatment of autism spectrum children with thiamine tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide: a pilot study. Neuroendocrinol Lett. 2002 Aug;23(4):303-8.

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Miller AL. Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), a non-toxic, water-soluble treatment for heavy metal toxicity. Altern Med Rev. 1998 Jun;3(3):199-207.

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Nataf R, Skorupka C, Amet L, Lam A, Springbett A, Lathe R. Porphyrinuria in childhood autistic disorder: implications for environ-mental toxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006 Jul 15;214(2):99-108.

Oka S, Kamata H, Kamata K, Yagisawa H, Hirata H. N-acetylcysteine suppresses TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation through inhibition of IkappaB kinases. FEBS Lett. 2000 Apr 28;472(2-3):196-202

Palmer RF, Blanchard S, Stein Z, Mandell D, Miller C. Environmental mercury release, special education rates, and autism disorder: an ecological study of Texas. Health Place. 2006 Jun;12(2):203-9.

Palmer RF, Blanchard S, Wood R. Proximity to point sources of environmental mercury release as a predictor of autism prevalence. Health Place. 2008 Feb 12.

Pasca SP, Nemes B, Vlase L, Gagyi CE, Dronca E, Miu AC, Dronca M. High levels of homocysteine and low serum paraoxonase 1 arylesterase activity in children with autism. Life Sci. 2006 Apr 4;78(19):2244-8.
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Rose S, Melnyk S, et al. The frequency of polymorphisms affecting lead and mercury toxicity among children with autism. Am J Biochem Biotechnol 2008: 4(2): 85-94.

Shannon M, Graef JW. Lead intoxication in children with pervasive developmental disorders. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1996;34(2):177-81.

Sheehan D et al. Structure, function and evolution of glutathione transferases: implications for classification of non-mammalian members of an ancient enzyme superfamily. Biochem J. 2001 Nov 15;360(Pt 1):1-16.

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Waly M, et al. Activation of methionine synthase by insulin-like growth factor-1 and dopamine: a target for neurodevelopmental toxins and thimerosal. Mol Psychiatry. 2004 Apr;9(4):358-7

Waring RH, Klovrza LV. Sulphur metabolism in autism. J Nutr Env Med. 2000;10:25-32.

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Windham G, Zhang L, Gunier R, Croen L, Grether J. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Relation to Distribution of Hazardous Air Pollutants in the San Francisco Bay Area. Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Sep;114(9):1438-44.

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Viruses and Bacteria in Autism Research

Bradstreet JJ, El Dahr JM, Anthony A, Kartzinel JJ, Wakefield AJ. Detection of measles virus genomic RNA in cerebrospinal fluid of children with regressive autism: a report of three cases. J Am Phys Surg. 2004:9(2):38-45.

Caruso JM et al. Persistent preceding focal neurologic deficits in children with chronic Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis. J Child Neurol. 2000 Dec;15(12):791-6.

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DeLong GR, et al. Acquired reversible autistic syndrome in acute encephalopathic illness in children. Arch Neurol. 1981 Mar;38(3):191-4.

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Autism by the Numbers

The costs of behavioral intervention therapy for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder can reach up to $60,000 per child each year.


It is estimated that medical costs associated with caring for a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder are up to $20,000 higher annually than caring for a child without.


It is estimated that Autism costs the nation $137 billion per year, no doubt the rising ate of children diagnosed will increase this figure dramatically.


In 2010 the National Institute of Health (NIH) allocated just $218 million of it’s $35.6 billion dollar budget to Autism. This number represents less than 0.6% of total NIH funding.


More children will be diagnosed with autism this year than pediatric AIDS, juvenile diabetes and cancer combined.


Autism is the fastest growing developmental disorder in the United States yet the most underfunded.


Autism occurs in all racial, ethnic and socioeconomic groups.


While the cause of Autism is still unclear, current studies indicate genetics and exposure to environmental triggers both play a role in the autism prevalence increase.


Families with one child on the Autism Spectrum have an estimated 20% increased risk of having another child affected.


Between 30-5-% of people with Autism suffer from seizures.


It is estimated that up to 40% of children with Autism do not speak.


Boys are four times more likely to have autism than girls. More specifically that number is 1 in 42 boys and 1 in 189 girls.


In 2014 the Center for Disease Control determined that approximately 1 in 68 children is diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in the United States. In 2000 this number was 1 in 250 children

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